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Principles of Lightning and Surge Protection

Principles of Lightning and Surge Protection

Lightning strokes, which add up to 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards to the equipment or location, so lightning protection is essential for operation.

Let's focus on the original note in regards to what is lightning and why lightning protection can be so important. The essential phenomenon behind lightning is always that charges accumulated from the cloud along with the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface via a flight. Once the gradient is bigger than the potential of the surface, the breakdown occurs along with a "streamer" flows in the cloud towards the earth.

A direct stroke occurs when the lightning hits the energy systems directly the immense potential will result in destruction from the equipment or even the facility. In contrast, an indirect stroke occurs from the lightning discharges from the proximity of the power line or from electrostatic discharge on the conductor due to charged clouds.

The key power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, alarm systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.

Ways of Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere method is used for identifying the exact keeping the lightning and surge protection devices nearby the equipment under operation.

Protection from the power line against direct strokes is through a ground wire or protector tube. The first sort produces electrostatic screening, which can be affected by the capacitances in the cloud to line along with the line to ground. Rogues forms an arc between your electrodes, causing gas deionisation.

Rooftop/Frame Protection. It really is interesting to make note of that this building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.

Installation of a finial towards the top of the power tower needs to have the absolute minimum distance of 1.5 m higher than the highest antenna or lights. A real rooftop or building frame is made from reinforced steel for protection purpose.

Wooden towers without downconductors may cause a hearth hazard, because they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors needs to be installed with the appropriate location and height.

Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection is provided through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The first method uses ball points in order that if a strike occurs, high potential forms between them and the ground. The second method causes gas deionisation through arc formation relating to the electrodes. The final method runs on the coax transmission line through the transmission line so that system bandwidth is narrow.

A lightning arrester can be a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. The unit classification may range from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.

Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now learn about how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection should be afforded. The style of earth rods, terminals or clamps needs to be in ways to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should adhere to the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system should have proper bonding, as ground potential rise cannot be compensated. Again, the amount of interconnects and spacing ought to be designed per the lightning standards.

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